Coal is also used in the industrial and retail sector as a fuel for heating and powering foundries, cement plants and other industrial and manufacturing facilities. A number of electric power plants also use coal to produce steam for generating electricity and for heating. Coal is still used in the iron and steel industry.
Apr 08, 2017· The methods used for the mining of coal by conventional methods are :a) Board and Pillar method. b)Room and Pillar method. In both of these methods, the entire coal deposit is divided into pillars of definite dimension and is extracted following the particular sequence of extraction considering the roof stability .
Longwall mining is a form of underground coal mining where a long wall of coal is mined in a single slice (typically – m thick). The longwall panel (the block of coal that is being mined) is typically 3–4 km long and 250–400 m wide.
of coal at the mining site and its transportation to a power station distresses the methods have been used to assess the impacts of coal on human health and the environment during its complete life cycle3. The external costs of coal mining and transportation have also been attempted in a number of international studies4, 5, 6,7
Detailed data from the EIA7A XLS and the Mine Safety and Health Administration (back to 1983) Production, company and mine information, operation type, union status, labor hours, and .
produce steel, and other bituminous and anthra. cite coals used for steam and power generation, and (b) brown coal (subbituminous and lignite), which is used mostly as onsite fuel. Coal has a. wide range of moisture content (2–40%), sulfur. content (–8%), and ash content (5–40%).
Placer mining. Placer mining is the technique by which gold that has accumulated in a placer deposit is extracted. Placer deposits are composed of relatively loose material that makes tunneling difficult, and so most means of extracting it involve the use of water or dredging.
Other mining methods. Longwall top coal caving method is used for exploitation of thick coal seams that have usually been more than 5 m in thickness and cannot be exploited by conventional methods of coal mining. LTCC mining technology has been used in China for a long time and it is said to have had excellent results.
Coal Geology. Metallurgical (coking) coal is black coal that is suitable for making coke, which is used in the production of pig iron. These coals must also have low sulphur and phosphorus contents, and are relatively scarce and attract a higher price than thermal coals.
4 According to the Raw Materials Group (RMG), 42% of South African coal mines are surface operations and 42% underground operations while the remaining 16% are a combination of both surface and underground mining operations (Raw Materials Group, 2014). Brief descriptions of the mining methods used in coal mines are discussed in the next sections.
mining methods used in underground mines. The methods are (1) room and pillar and (2) high extraction. The method used gives some indication of the amount and pattern of coal extraction within each mined area, and has some influence on the timing and type of subsidence that can occur over a mine. The following discussion and illustrations of mining methods are based on Guither et al. (1984).
Coal Mineral Deposits In Nigeria And Its Uses Coal Deposits Some Africa countries like Nigeria is blessed with coal rich states especially Enugu which is known as the "the coal city" because of its vast coal deposits, other states include; Benue, Kogi, Delta, Kwara, Plateau, Abia, Anambra, Bauchi, Edo, Ondo, Adamawa and Imo.
Explosives Mining Types. Many coal mines use explosives to loosen the rock and coal. In surface mining, holes are drilled through the overburden, loaded with explosives, and discharged, shattering the rock in the overburden. In one underground mining method, the coal is blasted off the bed without any undercutting to help break it down.
Coal as an energy source. Coal is an abundant natural resource that can be used as a source of energy, as a chemical source from which numerous synthetic compounds (, dyes, oils, waxes, pharmaceuticals, and pesticides) can be derived, and in the production of .
Chapter 7 COAL If we as a nation are to benefit in the future from our enormous, lowcost coal reserves, a variety of efforts are necessary to (1) develop and demonstrate new "clean coal"
method used gives some indication of the amount and pattern of coal extraction within each mined area, and has some influence on the timing and type of subsidence that can occur over a mine. The following discussion and illustrations of mining methods are based on Guither et al. (1984).